Surface Area 

With an area of 1,285,215 square km, Peru is the third-largest country in South America after Brazil and Argentina, ranking it amongst the world's 20 largest nations.

Peru also holds sway over the sea up to 200 miles from the Peruvian coast and has territorial rights to an area of 60 million hectares in the Antarctic. Peru is divided into 24 departments. Lima is the capital of Peru.

Peru is divided into three regions. Although this simple division is a fair portrait of Peru's geography, the reality is much richer and far more complex: in Peru, nature appears to have taken on particular characteristics which have turned its mountains, plains, jungles and valleys into unique habitats. 

An extraordinary variety of eco-systems shelters a wide diversity of animals and plants.


The Coast

Which features deserts, beautiful beaches and fertile valleys.

The Highlands

A mountainous area dominated by the Andes, where Mount Huascaran soars to 6,768 meters.

The Jungle

A vast region of tropical vegetation in the Amazon River Basin, home to Peru's largest natural reserves.



Peru is the second highest number of bird species in the world? Counting only breeding species, Peru is the first.

More new species have been described in Peru in the last 30 years than in any other country in the world with approximately 2 new species described per year on average?

The official list of birds of Peru has increased by about 200 species in 30 years, from 1601 species in 1972 to over 1800 species today? A combination of new records in Peru, taxonomic re-arrangement, and species new to science are responsible for this.

Currently, descriptions of at least 2 new species are being printed, at least 5 other new species are being described, and scientists estimate that more than 30 people may be new species waiting to be discovered?

More than 400 of the birds of Peru have more than one sub-species in the country, adding 1003 subspecies to 1800, reaching a total of over 2803 taxa?

Peru has the highest number of "range-restricted species" * in the Neotropics and is second in the world after Indonesia?

* Defined by Birdlife International as confined to a range of less than 50,000 square kilometers

Peru holds the world record for number of species of birds seen in one day without the aid of motorized vehicles, with 331 birds at Cocha Cashu in southeastern Peru? This record was established by Ted Robinson and Scott Parker in 1982 and still can not be overcome.

The partridges are the most primitive of the "Ratites" or runners (an ancient group called 'PALEOGNATHAE' which includes ostriches, rheas or rheas, cassowaries, emus, kiwis and Tinamus or partridges, and belongs to the oldest lineage of birds) , and that Peru has more Ratite species (28) than any other country in the world?

Peru has more flycatchers (Family Tyrannidae, 248 species), more ovenbirds (Family Furnariidae, 121 species) and finches (Emberizidae, 91 species) than any other country in the world?

Peru has both the largest flying bird in the world, the Andean condor, and the second smallest, the Little Woodstar (only 1 mm larger than the smallest, the Bee Hummingbird (bee hummingbird) from Cuba)?

For nature lovers in North America, Peru offers undoubtedly the most accessible and cost-penguin-the endangered Humboldt Penguins of species inhabiting the Pacific coast, and can be easily seen near the cities of Lima , Pisco, and Arequipa?

Macaw clay lick has more than any other country?

The mixed flock largest rainforest of southeast Peru gather up to 103 species, with more than 70 species present at one time?

These flocks in southeastern Peru are the most complex multi-species of any other group of organisms in the world, even more than the fish of the coral reef?

These mega-flocks, understory consist of a flock, a flock and a flock fruiting canopy tree, take a long time to form every morning, so the best time to see them is between 11 am and 2:30 pm?

Different species of parrots, take turns to visit a clay lick, however up to 10 species of parrots can be seen simultaneously in the best licks?

The largest number of macaws at a clay lick, can be seen in the lick Tambopata Research Center (southeastern Peru) and in the lick Pucani (east-central Peru), exceeding in both cases, the amount of 300 large macaws at the same time?

When it began to exploit the guano (bird droppings) as a fertilizer in the nineteenth century, workers in the islands off the coast of Peru, excavated more than 80 meters (250 feet) deep in guano?

There are 5-Inca finches belonging to the genus Incaspiza and the 5 are endemic to Peru?

Recently it was discovered that the gray gulls, a common gull on the coast of Peru, nests in the wilderness, even reaching up to 60 miles away do the sea? Until then, nobody knew where the bird had its nest.

At least 4 other species of seabirds (petrels and terns) also use the desert as a nesting territory to avoid predators?


Curiosities of Peru:

Peru has the highest peak in the tropics of the world (The Huascaran)

In Peru originates world's largest river, the river is also more water per unit of time leads to the ocean. (The Amazon)

Peru has the driest desert of the world where no rain most years (It is considered part of the Atacama Desert)

Peru has the second wettest year recorded with 15,000 mm of rain? That is 15 meters! This place is known as "Quincemil"

Peru coastal currents are the richest in fish species, compared with other tropical ocean in the world?

Peru has 87 of the 103 Holdridge life zones found in the world, more than any other country

Peru (Yanamono in the northeast) holds the world record for largest number of trees growing on a hectare, with 283 species of trees (a tree is defined as a plant with a trunk that has a trunk over 10 cm to the breast height).


Tell me more about Peru

Peru epitomises South America for many of us and offers bird watchers and wildlife enthusiasts the travel experience of a lifetime.

Almost everybody harbours longings to see the magnificent scenery of the high Andes, the evocative ruined cities of the Incas and the great rainforests of the Amazon basin.

Peru possesses an unrivalled range of environments inside one country, ranging from harsh deserts to vast rainforests, high snow-covered peaks to ox-bow lakes deep in the jungle, offshore islands to temperate cloudforest, glaciers to volcanoes and from grasslands to cactus-studded canyons.

Transitions from one environment to another are extremely rapid and during our travels we shall visit all the major habitats found in southern Peru from the Pacific Ocean to the Andes and the lowlands of Amazonia, marvelling at some of the finest scenery in the world.